More Christian Apocrypha
This page is intended as a companion to the forthcoming volumes New Testament Apocrypha: More Non-canonical Scriptures edited by Tony Burke (York University, Toronto) and Brent Landau (University of Texas). The first volume in the series is planned for publication by William B. Eerdmans in 2014
Collections of Christian Apocrypha (CA) are commonplace both in scholarly circles and in the popular book market. Typically these collections gather together non-canonical texts believed to have been composed within the first four centuries CE. This leaves a large number of other texts relatively unexamined, even though some of them had a great impact on medieval Christian piety. New Testament Apocrypha: More Non-canonical Scriptures (or MNTA) seeks to address this problem by bringing together North America’s CA scholars with the goal of editing and translating a wide assortment of little-known and never-before-published apocryphal texts for a scholarly and popular audience.
The project is a mirror of the More Old Testament Pseudepigrapha volumes under preparation by Jim Davila, Richard Bauckham, and Alexander Panayatov (University of St. Andrews, Edinburgh). These volumes collect material that is not included in the edition of Old Testament Pseudepigrapha published by James Charlesworth in the 1980s. Where Charlesworth’s volumes focused on early texts of Jewish provenance, the MOTP project seeks to include also medieval and Christian works, as well as new texts and new sources for texts that have surfaced since Charlesworth’s day. The first volume of the MOTP is due for publication by Eerdmans in September 2013. To read more about the project, visit http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/divinity/rt/moreoldtestamentpseudepigrapha/, or see the entry at Eerdmans’ online catalogue.
The MNTA project (which has been developed in consultation with Jim Davila) similarly seeks to collect neglected apocryphal texts. Where MOTP is conceptualized as a supplement to Charlesworth, MNTA is an enlargement of the most recent English-language CA collection (but now almost two decades old): J. K. Elliott’s The Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford 1991). There is no need to duplicate Elliott’s work, nor is there utility in presenting texts that have been published in other collections (e.g., the Nag Hammadi Library) or recent editions (e.g., Abraham Terrian’s 2008 edition of the Armenian Gospel of the Infancy). However, several of the texts in Elliott do need to be updated (e.g., the Dormition of Mary, the Infancy Gospel of Thomas) and there are numerous texts that are simply not included, primarily because they hail from a more recent time than those texts typically included in such collections. Many of these have scarcely been examined in over a century and are in dire need of new editions and translations.
Below are listed a range of CA texts that are not typically found in modern English CA collections. Some of these, however, have appeared recently in their own editions and/or English translations; thus, they will not be included in future MNTA volumes, except perhaps in summary or excerpts where it is felt more attention needs to be paid to the text. Each entry includes resources for introductory study of the texts (including outdated but accessible translations and/or translations in non-English languages, some indication of the range of manuscript sources for the text, and a handful of secondary sources).
De Santos=A. de Santos Otero, “Later Acts of the Apostles,” pp. 426-482 in W. Schneemelcher, New Testament Apocrypha, vol. 2, trans. R. McL. Wilson (Louisville, KY: WJK Press, 1992).
EAC 1=Écrits apocryphes chrétiens, vol. 1, eds. F. Bovon and P. Geoltrain (Paris: Gallimard, 1997).
EAC 2=Écrits apocryphes chrétiens, vol. 2, eds. P. Geoltrain and J.-D. Kaestli (Paris: Gallimard, 2005).
Ehrman-Pleše=Bart Ehrman and Zlatko Pleše, The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations (Oxford, 2011).
Elliott=J. K. Elliott, The Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon, 1993).
Gero=Stephen Gero, “Apocryphal Gospels: A Survey of Textual and Literary Problems.” ANRW 25.2 (New York: De Gruyter, 1988), 3969-96.
Klauck=H.-J. Klauck, The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles, trans. B. McNeil (Waco, TX: Baylor UP, 2008).
Lipsius-Bonnet=R. A. Lipsius and M. Bonnet, Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha (1891-1903; repr. Hildesheim 1972).
Lipsius= R. A. Lipsius, Die apockryphen Apostelgeschichten und Apostellegenden (1883-1890; repr. Amsterdam, 1976).
MNTA: New Testament Apocrypha: More Noncanonical Scriptures, vol. 1, eds. T. Burke and B. Landau (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, forthcoming)
1. Gospels and Related Traditions of New Testament Figures
Various Childhood Miracles of Jesus from Latin Infancy Gospels
Manuscripts: see the descriptions in J. Gijsel, Pseudo-Matthaei Euangelium. Textus et commentaries (CCSA 9), Turnhout 1997 (and subsequent updates).
Additional Bibliography: C. Dimier-Paupert, Livre de l’Enfance du Sauveur. Une version médiévale de l’Évangile de l’Enfance du Pseudo-Matthieu (xiiie siècle), Paris 2006 (an edition of Paris, Bibl. nat., lat. 11867); M. R. James, Latin Infancy Gospels. A New Text, with a Parallel Version from the Irish (Cambridge 1927); S. Voicu, “La tradition latine des Paidika,” Bulletin de l’AELAC 14 (2004), p. 13-21.
Armenian Infancy Gospel
Revelation of the Magi
Summary: the story is told from the perspective of the Magi, who are described much differently than in the canonical account of their journey. Here there are twelve Magi (perhaps more), they hail from a mythological eastern land named Shir, and the name “Magi,” it is said, derives etymologically from their practice of praying in silence. They knew to follow the star to Bethlehem because they are descendants of Seth, the third child of Adam and Eve, who passed on to them a prophecy told to him by his father Adam. The star appears to the Magi in the Cave of Treasures on the Mountain of Victories. There it transforms into a small, luminous being (clearly Christ, but his precise identity is never explicitly revealed) and instructs them about its origins and their mission. The Magi follow the star to Bethlehem, where it transforms into the infant Jesus. Upon returning to their land, the Magi instruct their people about the star-child. In an epilogue likely secondary to the text, Judas Thomas arrives in Shir, baptizes the Magi and commissions them to preach throughout the world.
Translations and editions: Brent C. Landau, MNTA 1 (forthcoming); idem., Revelation of the Magi: The Lost Tale of the Wise Men’s Journey to Bethlehem (San Francisco: Harper Collins, 2010) (based on Landau’s dissertation, “The Sages and the Star-Child: An Introduction to the Revelation of the Magi, An Ancient Christian Apocryphon,” Ph. D. diss.., Harvard Divinity School, 2008 [available HERE]).
Manuscripts: Vatican, Biblioteca apostolica, syr. 162; a shorter version incorporated into the Opus Imperfectum in Matthaeaum.
Additional Bibliography: Brent C. Landau, “‘One Drop of Salvation from the House of Majesty’: Universal Revelation, Human Mission and Mythical Geography in the Syriac Revelation of the Magi,” in The Levant: Crossroads of Late Antiquity (ed. Ellen B. Aitken and John M. Fossey; Leiden: Brill, 2014), 83-103; Witold Witakowski, “The Magi in Syriac Tradition,” in Malphono w-Rabo d-Malphone: Studies in Honor of Sebastian P. Brock (ed. George Kiraz; Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias, 2008), 809-43; idem, The Syriac Chronicle of Pseudo-Dionysius of Tel-Mahre: A Study in the History of Historiography (Uppsala: Uppsala University Press, 1987).
The Hospitality of Dysmas (BHG 2119y)
Other titles: “The Good Thief.”
Summary: during the Holy Family’s journey to Egypt, they meet a bandit named Dysmas. Taken by Mary’s beauty and proclaiming her the Mother of God, Dysmas brings the family to his home. The bandit leaves to hunt wild game. In the meantime, his wife draws a bath for Jesus. Dysmas’s child, leprous and colicky, is cured by bathing in the same water. When Dysmas returns, the miracle is revealed to him and he pledges himself to be Mary’s protector during her stay in Egypt. After guiding the family safely through the land, he is rewarded with a blessing, which the author reveals to be his martyrdom with Christ on the cross and his subsequent entry into Paradise.
Translations and editions: Mark Glen Bilby, MNTA 1 (forthcoming); Rémi Gounelle, “Une légende apocryphe relatant la rencontre du bon larron et de la sainte famille en Égypte (BHG 2119y),” AnBoll 121 (2003): 241-72.
Manuscripts: interpolated in two manuscripts of the M2 recension and most of the M3 recension of the Acts of Pilate. The story is related also to other tales of the “Good Thief” found in the Birth of the Savior (M.R. James’s Latin Infancy Gospel), and two Ps.-Matt. Mss (Brit. Mus., Harley 3199 fol. 104-105 [14th c.] and Namur, Bibliothèque du Séminaire, lat. 80 [12th c.]).
Additional Bibliography: Ehrman-Pleše 146-55 (Birth Sav. 111-25); M. R. James, Latin Infancy Gospels. A New Text, with a Parallel Version from the Irish (Cambridge 1927), 120-26; Maurits Geerard, “Le bon larron, un apocryphe inédit,” in Philologia sacra, vol. 2, Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel 24, 2 (Freiburg 1993), 355-63; idem, “Gute Schächer: Ein neues unediertes Apokryphon,” in La spiritualité de l’univers byzantin dans le verbe et l’image (ed. Kristoffel Demoen and Jeannine Vereecken; Instrumenta Patristica 30; Steenbrugis: In Abbatia S. Petri; Turnhout: Brepols, 1997), 85-89; Mark Glen Bilby, As the Bandit Will I Confess You: Luke 23:39-43 in Early Christian Interpretation (Cahiers de Biblia Patristica 13. Strasbourg: University of Strasbourg; Turnhout: Brepols, 2013).
Vision of Theophilus (CANT 56; CPG 2628)
In preparation for vol. 2 by Tony Burke, Slavomir Céplö, and Witold Witakowski.
Previous editions: A. Mingana, “The Vision of Theophilus, Or the Book of the Flight of the Holy Family into Egypt”, in Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 13 (1929), pp. 383-474; reprinted in ID., Woodbroke Studies fascicle 3, Cambridge 1931 (available HERE)
Manuscripts: Arabic (likely the original language), Syriac (perhaps best represented by Mingana Syr. 48, from 1906), Garshuni, Ethiopic
Additional Bibliography: F. Nau, “La version syriaque de la vision de Théophile sur le séjour de la Vierge en Egypte,” Revue de l’Orient chrétien 15 (1910), pp. 125-132.
The Syriac Version of the Childhood of Jesus (aka Infancy Gospel of Thomas)
Summary: the contents of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas are well-known and need no summary here. What is worth mentioning are the Syriac tradition’s departures from the standard 19-chapter Greek form of the text. Most notably, the Syriac (and other early versions, not all of which are complete) lacks ch. 1, with the text’s attribution to Thomas, and the beneficent miracles of chs. 10, 17, and 18. Chapter six is also lengthier, with a dialogue between Jesus and his teacher that is absent in the Greek MSS that lie behind many of the editions and translations of the text. It is widely believed that the Syriac text is more representative of the original form (but not the language, which certainly was Greek) of the gospel. This form illustrates much better than the Greek text that the author of Inf. Gos. Thom. does not regard Jesus’ curses as a defect in his behavior that is in need of rehabilitation.
Translations and editions: Tony Burke, MNTA 1 (forthcoming); W. Wright, Contributions to the Apocryphal Literature of the New Testament, collected and edited from Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum, with an English translation and notes, London 1865, p. 11-16 (text), p. 6-11 (translation).
Manuscripts: British Library, Add. 14484 (5th c.), Göttingen Universitätsbibliothek, Syr. 10 (5th/6th c.), Vatican, Biblioteca apostolica, syr. 159 (1622/1623), Mingana, Syr. 105 (1832/1833), and incorporated into an additional 14 MSS (and another four in Garshuni) of a West Syriac Life of Mary (CANT 95) and three of the East Syriac History of the Virgin (CANT 94).
Additional Bibliography: W. Baars and J. Heldermann, “Neue Materielen zum Text und zur Interpretation des Kindheitsevangeliums des Pseudo-Thomas”, OrChr 77 (1993), p. 191-226; 78 (1994), p. 1-32; E. A. W. Budge, The History of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the History of the Likeness of Christ (2 vols., London 1899), vol. 2, pp. 71-82 (IGT material in English), vol 1, pp. 67-76 (in Syriac); T. Burke, “The Infancy Gospel of Thomas from an Unpublished Syriac Manuscript. Introduction, Text, Translation, and Notes,” Hugoye 16.2 (2013): 225-99; C. Naffah, “Les ‘Histoires’ Syriaques de la Vierge traditions apocryphes anciennes et récentes,” Apocrypha 20 (2009): 137-88.
The Legend of Aphroditianus (CANT 55)
Other titles: The Narrative of Events Happening in Persia on the Birth of Christ, falsely attributed to Julius Africanus
Summary: At the moment of Christ’s birth, the statues in the temple of Hera in Persia dance and sing, announcing that Hera (meaning Mary) has become pregnant by Zeus (God) and will give birth to a child. A star appears above the statue of Hera and all the other statues bow down in worship to her. The wise men of the land interpret this as a sign of the birth of the Messiah. So the Magi follow the star to Judah with gifts for the child. The Magi return to Persia and inscribe on golden plates what they encountered (incorporating as in Matthew 2:1-12). They tell of their meeting with leaders in Jerusalem and their arrival in Bethlehem. They describe Mary and Jesus and child and reveal that one of their number painted an image of mother and child which they deposited in Hera’s temple. Their story finishes with a report of an angel warning them to return home.
Translations and editions: Pauline Bringel, “Une polémique religieuse à la cour perse: le De gestis in Perside. Histoire du téxte, édition critique et traduction” (2 vol.; Paris: Diss. Sorbonne 2007) (edition of De gestis in Perside); Katharina Heyden, MNTA 1 (forthcoming); ANF 6:127-30 (online text)
Manuscripts: embedded in multiple Greek MSS of De gestis in Perside, an anonymous 5th/6th-century fictional account of a dispute between Pagans, Christians, and Jews set in Persia; incorporated in John Damascene’s Homily on the Incarnation of Christ (also Greek; 8th cent.); two Slavonic recensions translated from Greek (one of these has been translated into Romanian); and Armenian (unedited).
Additional Bibliography: Gero 3980-81; Katharina Heyden, Die “Erzählung des Aphroditian.” Thema und Variationen einer Legende im Spannungsfeld von Christentum und Heidentum (Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum 53; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009); Andreas Külzer, Disputationes graecae contra Iudaeos. Untersuchungen zur byzantinischen antijüdischen Dialogliteratur und ihrem Judenbild (Byzantinisches Archiv 18. Leipzig/Stuttgart: Teubner, 1999).
On the Star by Pseudo-Eusebius of Caesarea
Summary: The Magi know about the star because it was revealed to them via the prophecy of Balaam (“A star shall come out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel,” Num. 24:17) which made its way to the east. When the star appears, the king of Persia gathers the gifts and sends the Magi on their way. They come to Jerusalem and the people there (“the kings, priests, and chiefs of the people”) cannot perceive the star “because they were not worthy.” Another star leads the Magi home, and their story is written down in and stored “among the records of the deeds of their kings.” At the end of the text, some sixteen or seventeen lines of the Syriac text have been purposely erased, probably on account of some statement which a later reader considered heretical.
English translation and edition: W. Wright, “Eusebius of Caesarea On the Star,” The Journal of Sacred Literature, 4th series vol. 9 (1866) p. 117; vol. 10 (1867), pp.150-164 (available HERE), audio (available HERE).
Manuscripts: Syriac (British Library, Add. 17,142)
Dialogue of the Paralytic with Christ (CANT 85)
Summary: this is an elaboration of the story of Jesus and the paralytic from John 5:1–15, though here the encounter is situated some time after the resurrection, perhaps as late as the fourth century if the paralytic’s mention of Arius (d. 336) is original to the text. Christ descends to earth and sees the paralytic. His situation is grave: “disabled and helpless, paralyzed and deprived of the use of all his limbs; he was indeed blind, without strength in his hands, disabled of the two feet and covered with wounds.” He asks Jesus who he is, but Jesus is evasive about his identity. He says, “I am a man who walks a lot, a traveler.” At one point he says he has traveled from India. The two begin to discuss Christ, who was famed as a healer. The paralytic had heard of Christ but no one could carry him to the healer to be cured. Jesus then questions why the man is afflicted: “Whereas you have hopes at this point in Christ, why did he not cure you? Would you not be unbelieving and guilty of very serious sins?” Then follows a series of exchanges recalling the protests of Job to his friends who sought some explanation for the evils he was suffering. Finally, Jesus stops playing with the poor man and says to him “Stand up, take your palate and walk!” (16). The man rises fully healed and Jesus vanishes.
Translations and editions: Bradley Rice, MNTA 1 (forthcoming); EAC 2: 63-74; edition in Karapet Melik‘-?hanjanyan, ?jer hay mijnadaryan gegharvestakan ardzakits‘ (Yerevan: Haykakan SSR? GA hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1957).
Manuscripts: extant in a number of Armenian and Georgian manuscripts of the 13th to 19th centuries. Three recensions in Georgian; five in Armenian.
Additional Bibliography: B. Outtier, “Paralytique et ressuscité (CANT 85 et 62). Vie des apocryphes en arménien,” Apocrypha 8 (1997): 111-119; idem, “À propos des traductions de l’arabe en arménien et en géorgien.” ParOr 21 (1996): 57-63.
Selected stories from Solomon of Basra, the Book of the Bee
Previous editions: E. A. W. Budge, The Book of the Bee: The Syriac Text Edited from the Manuscripts in London, Oxford, Munich, with an English Translation, Anecdota Oxoniensia, Semitic Series, 1, part II (Oxford: Clarendon, 1886) (available HERE).
Manuscripts: additional Syriac and Garshuni Mss listed in T. Burke and S. ?éplö, “The Syriac Tradition of the Legend of the Thirty Pieces of Silver” (forthcoming).
Selected stories from the Cave of Treasures
Previous editions: E. A. W. Budge, The Book of the Cave of Treasures (London: The Religious Tract Society, 1927) (available HERE)
On the Priesthood of Jesus (CANT 54)
Other titles: Confession of Theodosius, Apology of Theodosius
Summary: On the Priesthood of Jesus is an example of an embedded apocryphon—meaning, the text comes with a framing story, in this case a dispute between Jews and Christians in the reign of the emperor Justinian I (527–565) during which an account is brought forward that is said to have come from an old codex in Tiberius saved from the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. It is unlikely that this old account actually existed apart from the larger work. But it reveals that, early in the career of Jesus, a position became vacant in the 22-member priesthood. Jesus is put forward as a candidate but the priests must establish that he is a descendant of one of the priestly families. Since Joseph is deceased, they summon his mother, who reveals that Joseph was not Jesus’ earthly father but Jesus is still a suitable candidate because she is descended from the families of Aaron and Judah. As proof of her claim, the priests summon midwives to see if she is still a virgin. Her post partum virginity is established and Jesus is considered worthy of the priesthood. This makes it possible for Jesus to be the priestly messiah mentioned in Psalm 110:4 and provides background to the episode in Luke 4:16–22 where Jesus preaches in the synagogue.
Editions and translations: Bill Adler, MNTA 1 (forthcoming); EAC 2, 77-99; Athanasius Vassiliev, ed. Anecdota graeco-byzantina, pars prior (Moscow: Imperial University, 1893), 73-124 (includes three Greek witnesses to the story).
Arabic text and translation in B. Evetts, History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church of Alexandria (Saint Mark to Theonas) (Patrologia Orientalis 1.2; Paris, 1907), 120-134 (available HERE); Giorgio Ziffer, “Una versione greca inedita del ‘De Sacerdotio Christi’,” in Studi per Riccardo Ribuoli. Scritti di filologia, musicologia, storia (ed. Franco Piperno; Rome: Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1986), 141-73 (edition and Italian translation of longer Greek recension).
Manuscripts: Greek (two recensions, one long and one short), Georgian and Arabic (related to the longer Greek recension), Slavonic (two versions related to the shorter Greek recension); another short version incorporated into the Suda (a 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia; also available in Latin and Anglo-Norman, and a related Greek MS: Moscow, Russian State Library, gr. 687); an additional even-shorter Greek version in Vatican, Biblioteca apostolica, Ottoboni gr. 408.
Additional Bibliography: Gero, 3979-3980; Gilbert Dagron, “Jésus prêtre du judaïsme: le demi-succès d’une légende,” in Leimôn. Studies Presented to Lennart Rydén on His Sixty-Fifth Birthday (ed. J. O. Rosenqvist; Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Studia Byzantina Upsaliensia 6; Uppsala :Uppsala University, 1996), 1-24; Andreas Külzer, Disputationes graecae contra Iudaeos (Stuttgart and Leipzig: Teubner, 1999).
Homily on the Life of Jesus and His Love for the Apostles
In preparation for vol. 2 by Timothy Pettipiece.
Previous editions: EAC 2, p. 103-134. Some material in F. Robinson, Coptic Apocryphal Gospels (Texts and Studies, 4.2; Cambridge 1896), p. xxix-xxxii, 168-179, 238-244.
Manuscripts: various Coptic fragments.
Additional Bibliography: F. Morard, “Homélie copte sur les apôtres au jugement dernier,” in D. H. Warren et al, eds., Early Christian Voices in texts, Traditions, and Symbols (Biblical Interpretation Series, 66; Boston/Leyde, 2003), 417-30.
Apocryphal Gospel of John (CANT 44)
Previous editions: I. Galbiati, Iohannis evangelium apocryphum arabice (Mediolani: In aedibus Mondadorianis, 1957); L. Moraldi, Vangelo Arabo apocrifo dell’Apostolo Giovanni da un Manoscritto della Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Biblioteca di Cultura Medievale (Milan: Editoriale Jaca Book, 1991).
Manuscripts: earliest Ms is believed to be MS Sinai Arabic 441 (late 12th c.); related to the Ethiopic Miracles of Jesus (CANT 45).
Additional Bibliography: M. Van Esbroeck, “À propos de l’Évangile apocryphe arabe attribute à Saint Jean,” Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph 49 (Mélanges offerts au R. P. Henri Fleisch, S.J.) (1975-1976): 597-603; C. Horn, “Syriac and Arabic Perspectives on the Structural and Motif Parallels Regarding Jesus’ Childhood in Christian Apocrypha and Early Islamic Literature: The ‘Book of Mary,’ the Arabic Apocryphal Gospel of John, and the Qur’an,” Apocrypha 19 (2008): 267-291.
The Life of Judas
Previous editions: E. K. Rand, “Mediaeval Lives of Judas Iscariot,” in Anniversary Papers by Colleagues and Pupils of George Lyman Kittredge (Boston, 1913), p. 305-316. A version of this text is incorporated into The Golden Legend (available HERE).
Manuscripts: Baum lists 42 Latin Mss.
Additional Bibliography: P. L. Baum, “The Mediaeval Legend of Judas Iscariot,” PMLA 31.3 (1916): 481-632.
History of the Thirty Pieces of Silver
In preparation for vol. 1 by Tony Burke and Slavomir Céplö.
Previous editions: G. F. Hill, “The Thirty Pieces of Silver,” Archaeologica 59 (1905): 235-254 (repr. in his The Medallic portraits of Christ: The False Shekels: The Thirty Pieces of Silver [Oxford: Clarendon, 1920], p. 91-116); T. Burke and S. Céplö, “The Syriac Tradition of the Legend of the Thirty Pieces of Silver” (forthcoming) (English translation available HERE)
Manuscripts: Latin, Syriac, Garshuni, Armenian, and romance languages.
Additional Bibliography: David Hook, “The Legend of the Thirty Pieces of Silver,” in A. D. Deyermond et al, eds., The Medieval Mind: Hispanic Studies in Honour of Alan Deyermond (London: Tamesis, 1997), p. 205-221.
History of the Holy Rood-tree
Description: a Legend of the True Cross incorporating an account of the thirty silver pieces (here rings or crowns) given to Judas to betray Jesus.
Previous editions: English translation in Arthur S. Napier, History of the Holy Rood-tree (EETS, Old Series 103; London: Oxford University Press, 1894), 69.
Manuscripts: Latin, Greek, Amharic, Arabic.
Additional Bibliography: Thomas L. Kane, “An Amharic Version of the Origin of the Cross,” BSAOS 44. 2 (1981): 273-89; Jakob Gretser, Hortus Sanctae Crucis (Ingolstadt, 1610), p. 233; E. A. Wallis Budge, The Queen of Sheba and Her Only Son Menyelek (London: Martin Hopkinson& Co., 1922), xxxix-xlv.
Death of Judas according to Papias
Summary: the fourth book of Papias’s lost Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord contains a tradition about the death of Judas that is different from what we find in both Matt 27:3-10 and Acts 1:18-20. This tradition, preserved in a long version and a short version in Greek catenae (collections of extracts from biblical commentators), states that Judas was punished for his betrayal of Jesus by becoming “inflamed in the flesh”—so large that he could not through narrow streets, his eyes swollen shut, his genitals enlarged and filled with pus and worms. Death came to him “in his own land” and no one can pass through there without holding their nose.
Editions and translations: Geoffrey Smith, MNTA 1 (forthcoming); John Anthony Cramer, Catenae Graecorum Patrum in Novum Testamentum (8 vols.; Oxford: Academic Press, 1840-1844), 1:231 (short version), 3:12-13 (long version); Michael W. Holmes, The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations (Rev. ed.; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1999), 582-85 (long version).
Manuscripts: Cramer’s edition uses Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Coislin gr. 23 and Oxford, Bodleian Library, Auctarium T.I.4 for the catenae to Matthew, and Oxford, New College, 58 for Acts.
Additional Bibliography: J. Rendel Harris, “Did Judas Really Commit Suicide?” AJT 4.3 (1900): 490-513; Kirsopp Lake, “The Death of Judas,” in The Beginnings of Christianity, Part 1: The Acts of the Apostles (ed. Kirsopp Lake and Henry J. Cadbury; 5 vols.; London: Macmillan, 1920-1933), 5:22-30.
Coptic Life of Mary
Latin Life of Mary
East Syriac History of the Virgin (CANT 94; BHO 643-645)
Transitus/Dormition of Mary (CANT 100-177)
Previous editions: A. Walker, trans. In Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 8. A. Roberts, J. Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe, eds., (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1886.) (available HERE)
Manuscripts: most important are the Ethiopic Liber Requiei Mariae (The Book of Mary’s Repose) and the “Six Books” Dormition Narratives in Syriac.
Additional Bibliography: S. J. Shoemaker, Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary’s Dormition and Assumption (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, 2006); W. Wright, Contributions to the Apocryphal Literature of the New Testament, collected and edited from Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum, with an English translation and notes (London 1865), p. 18-41.
Life of John the Baptist by Serapion (CANT 183)
Summary: The story is told through the voice of the bishop Serapion, an Egyptian bishop of the fourth century, on the occasion of an unspecified feast day for John. It begins with a harmony of details about John’s birth taken from the Gospel of Luke and the Infancy Gospel of James, finishing with the death of Zechariah and Elizabeth fleeing from Herod’s soldiers into the desert. After five years, when John is seven years and six months old, Elizabeth dies, portentously on the same day as Herod the Great. Jesus, “whose eyes sees heaven and earth” (7:3), sees John grieving and spirits himself and Mary to the desert on a cloud. They bury Elizabeth and then Jesus and Mary remain with John for seven days, teaching him how to live in the desert. Then Mary and Jesus return to Nazareth, leaving John under the protection of Gabriel and watched by the souls of his parents. The text then shifts to John’s adult career and the story of Herod Antipas and his affair with Philip’s wife Herodias. The gospel account is expanded with a prologue to the story of John’s death revealing that Herodias and Herod worked together to obtain Philip’s land and then Herodias and her daughter left Philip to join Herod in Judea where he lived daily with both of them in adultery. Thanks to Herodias’s scheming, John is arrested and beheaded. Herodias wishes to defile the head of the Baptist, but to her surprise it flies up into the air and continues its criticism of Herod in the skies, first of Jerusalem and then throughout the world, for fifteen years. The head lands in the town of Homs (Emesa), where it is buried by the townspeople and a church is built upon the spot. Herodias, her daughter, and Herod all meet grisly ends, thus allowing John’s disciples to take his body (recalling Mark 6:29/Matt 14:12) and bury it in Sebaste, near the body of the prophet Elisha. Over time the remains are carried off to Alexandria, where Serapion, the author of the text, helps in building a church in the Baptist’s honour.
Editions and translations: Slavomir Céplö, MNTA 1 (forthcoming); Alphonse Mingana, “A New Life of John the Baptist,” in Woodbrooke Studies: Christian Documents in Syriac, Arabic, and Garshuni, vol. 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1927), 138-145, 234-287 (available HERE).
Manuscripts: 10 Garshuni MSS, four from the Mingana collection (Syr. 22, 183, 367 and 369). Mingana’s edition is based on Syr. 22 and 183; Céplö’s translation is based on Mingana Syr. 369 and Vatican, Biblioteca apostolica, Sbath 125. The original language is likely Coptic.
Additional Bibliography: Tony Burke, “The New Testament and Other Early Christian Traditions in Serapion’s Life of John the Baptist,” in Christian Apocrypha. Receptions of the New Testament in Ancient Christian Apocrypha (ed. Jean-Michel Roessli and Tobias Nicklas; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2014), 281-300.
The Life and Martyrdom of John the Baptist by Mark the Evanglist (CANT 181; BHG 834)
In preparation for vol. 1 by Andrew Bernhard.
Previous editions: F. Nau, “Histoire de saint Jean Baptiste,” PO 4 (1908): 526-541.
Manuscripts: Greek (see CANT 181) and Slavonic.
Additional Bibliography: A. Berendts, Die handschriftliche Überlieferung der Zacharias- und Johannes-Apokryphen (TU, N. F. 11, 3; Leipzig: J. C. Hinrich, 1904), p. 15-17.
The Beheading of John the Baptist by Euriptus, the Disciple of John (CANT 180.2; BHG 832)
Previous editions: A. Vassiliev, Anecdota graeco-byzantina, I (Moscow: Universitatis Caesareae, 1893), 1-4 (English translation available HERE).
Manuscripts: Greek, Montis Casin. 277 (11th c.), Vat. gr. 1192 (15th c.), and Vat. gr. 1989 (12th c.).
Additional Bibliography: A. Berendts, Die handschriftliche Überlieferung der Zacharias- und Johannes-Apokryphen (TU, N. F. 11, 3; Leipzig: J. C. Hinrich, 1904).
The Invention of John the Baptist’s Head
In preparation for vol. 1 by Paul Dilley.
Encomium on John the Baptist (CANT 184; CPG 5150.3)
Editions and translations: Philip Tite, MNTA 1 (forthcoming); E. A. Wallis Budge, Coptic Apocrypha in the Dialect of Upper Egypt (Oxford: Longman and Co., 1913), 137-143 (text), 343-350 (translation). Also re-examined and translated into French in EAC 1, p. 1553-1578.
Manuscripts: Coptic, British Museum, MS. Oriental No. 7024 (10th c.); perhaps Syriac (Mingana, Syr. 225; ca. 1450).
Additional Bibliography: E. O. Windstedt, “A Coptic Fragment Attributed to James the Brother of the Lord,” JTS 8 (1907), 240-248.
Book of the Cock
Previous editions: EAC 2, p. 137-203.
Additional Bibliography: R. W. Cowley, “The So-called “Ethiopic Book of the Cock”—Part of an Apocryphal passion Gospel, The Homily and Teaching of our Fathers the Holy Apostles,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1985), 16-22; P. Piovanelli, “Exploring the Ethiopic Book of the Cock, An Apocryphal Passion Gospel from late Antiquity,” HTR 96 (2003): 427-454.
Life of Mary Magdalene (CANT 72; BHG 1161x)
In preparation for vol. 1 by Nicole Kelly.
Previous editions: F. Halkin, “Une Vie grecque de sainte Marie-Madeleine,” AnBoll 105 (1987): 5-23. Material available also in The Golden Legend (on-line version HERE).
Additional Bibliography: M. Geerard, “Marie-Madeleine, dénonciatrice de Pilate,” Sacris Erudiri 31 (1989-1990): 139-148.
Encomium on Mary Magdalene (CANT 73)
In preparation for vol. 1 by Christine Luckritz Marquis.
Previous editions: R. G. Coquin and G. Godron, “Un encomium copte sur Marie-Madeleine attribute à Cyrille de Jérusalem,” Bulletin de l’Institute français d’archéologie orientale 90 (1990): 169-212.
Epistle of Christ from Heaven (CANT 311)
In preparation for vol. 1 by Calogero Miceli.
Previous editions: EAC 2, p. 1101-1119; P. Beskow, Strange Tales about Jesus: A Survey of Unfamiliar Gospels (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983), p. 25-26 (available HERE)
Manuscripts: various. Earliest Greek versions reflected in Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, gr. 925 (15th c.) and Vatican, Barber. III 3 (1497).
Additional Bibliography: M. Bittner, “Der vom Himmel gefallene Brief in seinen morgenländischen Versionen und Rezensionen,” Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften: philosophisch-historische Klasse 51.1 (Vienna 1906), p. 1-240 (transcription of Paris, BN gr. 925 on pp. 16-21); Robert Priebsch, Letter from Heaven on the Observance of the Lord’s Day, Medium Aevum 5, supplementary volume (Oxford 1936).
Avenging of the Savior (CANT 70; BHL 4221)
Previous editions: EAC 2, p. 371-398; A. Walker, trans. In Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 8. A. Roberts, J. Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe, eds., (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1886.) (available HERE)
Additional Bibliography: J. E. Cross, Two Old English Apocrypha and their Manuscript Source: The Gospel of Nicodemus and the Avenging of the Saviour (Cambridge 1996) (includes edition of Latin Ms of Saint-Omer)
Cure of Tiberias
Martyrdom of Pilate (CANT 75) and the Lament of the Virgin (CANT 74)
Previous editions: Alphonse Mingana, “Lament of the Virgin” and “Martyrdom of Pilate,” in Woodbrooke Studies: Christian Documents in Syriac, Arabic, and Garshuni, vol. 2 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1928), 163-332. (available HERE)
Manuscripts: Ethiopic, Arabic, Garshuni, Coptic.
Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea (CANT 76; BHG 779r)
Previous editions: EAC 2, p. 331-354; A. Walker, trans. In Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 8. A. Roberts, J. Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe, eds., (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1886.) (available HERE)
Manuscripts: Greek and Slavonic; another text (?) is known in Georgian (CANT 77)
Additional Bibliography: R. Gounelle, “A propos d’une refonte de la Narratio Iosephi, jadis confondue avec les Acta Pilati, et d’un drame religieux qu’elle a inspire,” Apocrypha 5 (1994): 165-188.
2. Apocryphal Acts and Related Traditions
Acts of Barnabas (CANT 285; BHG 225)
In preparation for vol. 1 by Glenn Snyder.
Previous editions: Lipsius-Bonnet, II.2, p. 292-302; Walker, ANF 16, p. 293-300 (on-line text); E. Norelli, EAC 2, p. 619-642.
Manuscripts: Greek, Latin, Slavonic.
Additional Bibliography: Elliott, p. 523-524; De Santos, p. 465-466; Klauck, p. 247 (summaries).
Acts and Martyrdom of Bartholomew (CANT 258, 260-264; BHGa 226z, etc.)
Previous editions: Lipsius-Bonnet, II.1, p. 128-150
Manuscripts: Greek (longer version unedited from Cod. Wimar. Q 729, fol. 173-180, 11th c.), Coptic, Arabic, Ethiopic, Armenian
Additional Bibliography: De Santos, p. 451-452; Klauck, p. 243-244.
Passion of Bartholomew (CANT 259; see Ps. Abdias) (on-line text)
Acts of Cornelius
In preparation for vol. 1 by Tony Burke and Witold Witakowski.
Acts of Nereus and Achillius ?
Acts and Martyrdom of James the Brother of the Lord (CANT 274, 276-279; BHG 763y, etc.)
Previous editions: Lipsius II.2, p. 229-257.
Manuscripts: unedited Greek text (BHG763y) in Cod. Sinait. gr. 493, fol. 191-197 (8/9th c.); Coptic, Arabic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Georgian
Additional Bibliography: De Santos, p. 478-479; Klauck, p. 243-244.
The Passion of James the Brother of the Lord (CANT 275; see Ps. Abdias)
Acts of James, Son of Zebedee (aka the Greater) (CANT 273)
Previous editions: A. Smith Lewis, Horae Semiticae III-IV (London, 1904), p. 26-29, 30-36 (Arabic).
Manuscripts: Coptic, Arabic, Ethiopic. Also a late Greek text (=BHG 767) edited by J. Ebersolt, Les Actes de S. Jacques et les Actes d’Aquilas d’après deux manuscrits grecs de la Bibliothèque nationale (Paris, 1902).
Additional Bibliography: Klauck, p. 244-245; De Santos, p. 476-477.
Passion of James, Son of Zebedee (CANT 272; see Ps. Abdias)
History of John, the Son of Zebedee
Previous editions: Wright, Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles (1871) Volume 2, pp. 3-60 (online text).
John and the Young Bishop of Ephesus (Clement of Alexandria, Quis dives salvetur 42.1–15)
Description: a short tale of John preserved by Clement of Alexandria. Excerpted also in Eusebius, Eccl. hist. 3.23 (online text).
Passion of Luke (CANT 290-294)
Previous editions: Lipsius II.2, 354-371; EAC 2, p. 961-978.
Manuscripts: Syriac, Coptic, Arabic, Ethiopic.
Additional Bibliography: Klauck, p. 248; De Santos, p. 467-468.
Acts of Mark (CANT 288-290; BHG 2036m)
Previous editions: Lipsius II.2, p. 321-353; F. Halkin, “Actes inédits de saint Marc,” AnBoll 87 (1969): 343-371.
Manuscripts: Greek and Coptic (CANT 290=Encomium)
Additional Bibliography: Klauck p. 247-248; De Santos, p. 464-465.
Passion of Mark (CANT 287; BHG 1035, 2036)
Previous editions: PG 115, p. 164-169; EAC 2, p. 569-587.
Manuscripts: Greek (with two unedited versions BHG 1036c, 1036d), Latin, Coptic, Arabic, Ethiopic.
Additional Bibliography: Klauck p. 247-248; De Santos, p. 461-464.
Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew (CANT 267 cf. 268-269, 271; BHG 1224-1225 etc.)
Manuscripts: Greek, Latin, Armenian, Slavonic, Ethiopic, Arabic.
Additional Bibliography: Klauck p. 244; Elliott, p. 520-523; De Santos, p. 458-460.
Passion of Matthew (CANT 270;see Ps. Abdias)
Martyrdom of the Blessed Apostle Peter (Passio Petri) by Pseudo-Linus (CANT 191; BHL 6655)
Previous Editions: Lipsius, part 1, pp. 1-22; Salonius, A. H. (ed.) Martyrium beati Petri (Helsingfors, 1926); Otto Zwierlein, Petrus in Rom: Die literarische Zeugnisse. Online translation.
Additional Bibliography: De Santos, p. 436-37.
Martyrdom of the Apostle Paul (Passio Pauli) by Pseudo-Linus (CANT 212; BHL 6570)
Previous Editions: Lipsius, part 1, pp. 23-44. Online translation.
Additional Bibliography: De Santos, p. 439.
Acts of Peter (Syriac Epitome)
In preparation for vol. 1 by F. Stanley Jones.
Preaching of Simon Cephas in the City of Rome (CANT 199)
Previous editions: This text was published in Syriac and English by William Cureton, Ancient Syriac Documents (London: Williams and Norgate, 1864), 35-41 (text), 35-41 (translation) (online text).
Manuscripts: Syriac. British Library, Add. 14644 and Add. 14609 (used by Cureton). The text is also contained in four additional Syriac manuscripts: Mingana, Syr 4; Harvard, Houghton Library 99; Leningrad, Syriac n.s. 4, and Montserat 31
Acts of Philip (CANT 250-255; BHGa 1524c-f etc.)
Previous editions: Lipsius-Bonnet II.2, p. 1-98; F. Bovon, B. Bouvier, F. Amsler, Acta Philippi 2 vols., CCSA 11 and 12 (Turnhout, 1999); ANF 16 (on-line text).
Manuscripts: Greek, Syriac, Slavonic, Coptic, Arabic, Ethiopic
Additional Bibliography: Elliott, p. 512-518 (summary); Klauck, p. 232-243; Bovon, F. “Les Actes de Philippe,” ANRW II, 25. 1988): 4431-4527.
Passion of Philip (see Ps. Abdias)
History of Philip (CANT 253; BHO 974)
In preparation for vol. 1 by Robert Kerr.
Previous editions: Wright, Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles (1871) Volume 2, pp.69-92 (on-line text).
Acts of Simon the Canaanean (CANT 282.)
Previous editions: A. Smith Lewis, Acta Mythologica, p. 96-98; Mythological Acts, p. 115-117 (Arabic); Lipsius II.2, p. 152-154.
Manuscripts: Coptic, Arabic, Ethiopic.
Additional Bibliography: De Santos, p. 479-480.
Passion of Simon and Jude (CANT 284; see Ps. Abdias)
Acts of Stephen (CANT 300-303)
Previous editions: Y. ‘Abd al-Masih, “A Coptic Apocryphon of Saint Stephen the Archdeacon,” Muséon 70 (1957): 329-347; id., “An Arabic Apocryphon of Saint Stephen the Archdeacon,” Studia Prientalia Christiana Collecteana 13 (1968-1969): 161-198.
Manuscripts: Coptic, Arabic, Georgian.
Acts of Thaddeus (CANT 299; BHG 1702-1703).
Manuscripts: Greek and Armenian.
Additional Bibliography: Klauck p. 249; De Santos p. 481; A. Palmer, “Les Actes de Thaddée,” Apocrypha 13 (2002): 63-84.
Acts of Timothy (CANT 295-297; BHG 1847, 1848, 1848b)
In preparation for vol. 1 by Cavan Concannon.
Previous editions: Lipsius II.2, p. 372-400; EAC 2, p. 589-601.
Manuscripts: Greek and Latin.
Additional Bibliography: Klauck p. 248-249.
Acts of Titus (CANT 298; BGH 1850z)
In preparation for vol. 1 by Richard Pervo.
Previous editions: Lipsius II.2, p. 401-406; EAC 2, p. 605-615
Additional Bibliography: M. R. James, “The Acts of Titus and the Acts of Paul,” Journal of Theological Studies 6 (1905): 549-556.
Acts of Xanthippe and Polyxena
In preparation for vol. 1 by David Eastman.
Manuscripts: Greek (Paris, Bibliothèque nationale gr.1458 [11th cent.]; Vatican, gr. 803 [11th cent.]; Moscow, State Historical Museum gr. 161 [11th cent.]; Moscow, Russian State Library gr. 68  [15th cent.])
Additional Bibliography: Klauck p. 250-251; Elliott, p. 524-525.
Doctrine of Addai (CANT 89; BHO 24)
Previous editions: G. Phillips, The Doctrine of Addai…(London, 1876) (HTML version); new translation of Phillips edition by George Howard (trans.), The Teaching of Addai (SBL Texts and Translations, 16, Early Christian Literature Series, 4; Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1981).
EAC 1, p. 1471-1525.
Manuscripts: Syriac, Armenian (BHO 9)
The Apostolic History of Peudeo-Abdias
Contains stories of: Peter, Paul, Andrew, James the Great, John, James the Less (including Acts of Simon and Jude), Matthew, Bartholomew, Thomas, and Philip
Previous editions: Borberg, K. F. Bibliothek, der neutestamentlichen Apokryphen, gesammelt, übersetzt, und erläutert. Stuttgart: Literatur-Comptoir, 1841, p. 391-721; L. Moraldi, Apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento, vol. 2 (2nd ed.; Casale Monferrato: 1992), 517-682; Fabricius, ii. 387-742; M. R. James, 462-469 (summaries of certain books); EAC 2, p. 737-864.
Additional Bibliography: Elliott, p. 525-531; Klauck, p. 251-252.
Letter of Ps.-Dionysius the Areopagite to Timothy on the Death of Peter and Paul
In preparation for vol. 1 by David Eastman.
Previous Editions: W. Scott Watson, “An Arabic Version of the Epistle of Dionysius the Areopagite to Timothy,” American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 16.4 (1900): 225-241; E. A. Wallis Budge, The Contendings of the Apostles (London, 1899), p. 50-65 (Ethiopic).
Languages: Latin, Arabic, Ethiopic, and others.
Second Apocalypse of John the Theologian (CANT 331; BHG 921-922h)
Previous editions: C. Tischendorf, Apocalypses apocryphae (Leipzig, 1866), p. 70-93; EAC 2, p. 983-1018 (=First Apocryphal Apocalypse of John); ANF 8 (on-line text); John M. Court, The Book of Revelation and the Johannine Apocalyptic Tradition (JSNT Sup. 190; Sheffield Press, 2000), p. 23-63.
Manuscripts: Greek, Armenian, Arabic, Slavonic.
Additional Bibliography: A. Whealey, “The Apocryphal Apocalypse of John. A Byzantine Apocalypse from the Early Islamic Period,” JThS 53 (2002): 535-540; Schneemelcher (in NTA II), p. 693; Elliott, p. 684.
Apocalypse of John Chrysostom (CANT 332)
Previous editions: F. Nau, “Une deuxième Apocalypse apocryphe grecque de S. Jean,” RB 11 (1914): 209-221; John M. Court, The Book of Revelation and the Johannine Apocalyptic Tradition (JSNT Sup. 190; Sheffield Press, 2000), p. 64-103.
Manuscripts: Greek (Paris, gr. 947, 16th cent.)
Additional Bibliography: Schneemelcher (in NTA II), p. 693; Elliott, p. 684; EAC 2 (=Second Apocryphal Apocalypse of John), 988-989.
Latin Apocalypse of John
In preparation for vol. 1 by Charles Wright.
Enthronement of Abadon
In preparation for vol. 1 by Alin Suciu.
Questions of James, the Brother of the Lord, to John the Theologian (aka Third Apocalypse of John) (CANT 279; BHG 765-765b)
Previous editions: A. Vassiliev, Anecdota graeco-byzantina, I (Moscow, 1893), p. 317-322; translation in John M. Court, The Book of Revelation and the Johannine Apocalyptic Tradition (JSNT Sup. 190; Sheffield Press, 2000), p. 104-131.
Additional Bibliography: EAC 2, p. 989-990.
Mysteries of John (aka Coptic Apocalypse of John) (CANT 333)
In preparation for vol. 2 by Alex Kocar.
Previous editions: E. A. Wallis Budge, Coptic Apocrypha in the Dialect of Upper Egypt (London, 1913), p. 59-74 (text), 241-257 (trans.); republished in John M. Court, The Book of Revelation and the Johannine Apocalyptic Tradition (JSNT Sup. 190; Sheffield Press, 2000), p. 132-163.
Additional Bibliography: Schneemelcher (in NTA II), p. 693; Elliott, p. 684; EAC 2, p. 990.
Fourth Apocalypse of John (BHG 922k)
Previous editions: unedited (see discussion in EAC 2, p. 989).
Apocalypse of the Virgin (CANT 327-330; BHG 1050-1054m etc.)
In preparation for vol. 1 by Stephen Shoemnaker.
Previous editions: M. R. James, Apocrypha Anecdota (Cambridge, 1893), p. 109-126; ANF 9 (on-line text); H. Pernot, “Descente de la Vierge aux Enfers d’après les manuscrits grecs de Paris,” Revue des etudes grecques 13 (1900): 233-251.
Manuscripts: Greek, Armenian, Georgian, Slavonic, Syriac, Arabic, and a second version in Ethiopic.
Additional Bibliography: Elliott, p. 686-687; Schneemelcher (in NTA II), p. 694; R. Bauckham, “Virgin, Apocalypses of the,” in D. N. Freedman (ed.), Anchor Bible Dictionary (New Yprk, 1992), 6:854-856; R. Bauckham, “The Four Apocalypses of the Virgin Mary.” Pages 332-362 in ID., The Fate of the Dead. Studies on the Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. Novum Testamentum. Supplements 93 (Leiden: Brill, 1998), p. 332-362; S. C. Mimouni, “Les Apocalypses de la Vierge. État de la question,” Apocrypha 4 (1993): 101-112.
Revelation of Stephen (BHG 1648-1665)
Previous editions: M. J. Lagrange, Saint Étienne et son sanctuaire à Jérusalem (Paris: Picard, 1894), p. 43-52 (Latin); ; F. Bovon and B. Bouvier, “Étienne le premier martyr: du livre canonique au récit apocryphe,” in Die Apostelgeschichte und die hellenistische Geschichtsschreibung. Festschrift E. Plümacher, ed. C. Breytenbach et al (Leiden: Brill, 2004), p. 309-331 (=BHG 1649c).
Manuscripts: Greek, Latin.
Additional Bibliography: F. Bovon, “The Dossier on Stephen the First Martyr,” HTR 96 (203): 279-315.
Book of the Rolls (aka Apocalypse of Peter)
Manuscripts: Syriac (Garshuni), Arabic.
The Testament of Our Savior
In preparation for vol. 1 by Maria Doerfler.
Previous editions: Cooper, James and Arthur J. Maclean. The Testament of Our Lord, translated into English from the Syriac with introduction and notes (Edinburgh 1902)
Manuscripts: Syriac, Ethiopic, Arabic (note this is a Church Order but begins with an apocalypse delivered by Jesus)
The Testament of the Apostles (?)
The Tiburtine Sybil
In preparation for vol. 1 by Stephen Shoemaker.
The Gospel of the Twelve and the Apocalypses of Each of Them
Previous editions: Harris, J. R., ed. The Gospel of the Twelve Apostles Together with the Apocalypses of Each One of Them (Cambridge, 1900).
Manuscripts: Syriac (Cod. Harris 85)
Additional Bibliography: A. F. J. Klijn, Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition. Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae 17 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992).